PALEONTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOUTH CAROLINA

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Chasmosaurus Information Sheet

This is another Never Before Featured Dinosaur! This Never Before Featured Dinosaur promises to impress, with its large frill and bulky body!

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NAME: Chasmosaurus

NAMED BY: Lawrence Lamb

NAME MEANING: Cleft lizard

DATE NAMED: 1914

DISCOVERED BY: Lawrence Lamb

DESCRIBED BY: Lawrence Lamb

PRONOUNCIATION: KAZZ-mow-SORE-us

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SPECIAL FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS: Rather large, rectangular frill on the neck and many small horns on the face.It was a rhinoceras like creature. It had three short horns on the face, and a large, bony plate projecting from behind the skull, also known as a frill. It had a parrot like beak, with two upward-facing curled horns above the large brow area. It had four hoof-like claws, a large, bulky body, and a large head.

LENGTH: 16-26 ft, 5-8 m

HEIGHT: N/A

WEIGHT: 3.5 tons, 3220 kg

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PERIOD: Late Cretaceous

MILLION YEARS AGO: 76.5-75.5

HABITAT FOUND IN: Woodlands

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Podocarpus, Betulaceae (like Alnus), Araliaceae (like Aralia), conifers (like Araucarioxylon, Metasequoia, and Pinus), Corneaceae (like Cornus), Cycadeodias (like Cycadeoidea), Fagaceae (like Quercus - oak), Filincophyta (like Dryophyllum), Filincophyta (like Tetrastichia ), Ginkgophyta (like Ginkgo), Lauraceae (like Laurus and Sassafras), Magnoliaceae (like Magnolia), Moraceae (like Ficus), Palmae (Palmus), Pandanaceae (Pandanus), and Salicaceae (like Populus and Salicaceae).

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DIET: Herbivore

MOBILITY: Quadrupedal

REPRODUCTION: Thought to lay eggs.

INTELLIGENCE: Average

BEHAVIOR: Slow moving in general, reached a decent speed. Lumbering, but portayed as protective of family and young.

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  • Alphadon - a primitive marsupial mammal, about 1 foot (30 cm) long. This omnivore (eating insects, small animals, seeds and fruit) lived in trees, had opposable toes, and a prehensile tail. Found in western North America from Alberta, Canada to New Mexico, USA.
  • Anatotitan - 70-65 million years old, a duck-billed plant-eater. From western North America.
  • Albertosaurus - A carnivore similar to Tyrannosaurus, but smaller. 76-74 million years old. From western North America.
  • Anchiceratops- a ceratopsian 20 feet (6 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 73-70 mya.
  • Ankylosaurus - The last armor-plated dinosaur (a plant eater), 70-65 million years ago, as big as a tank. From western North America.
  • Archelon - A huge sea turtle covered with horny plates. It was 10-13 feet (3-4 m) long and had paddle-like limbs.
  • Arrhinoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 72-68 mya.
  • Aublysodon - a 15 ft (4.5 m) theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from western North America, 76-65 mya.
  • Brachyceratops- A ceratopsian (a frilled, small-horned, plant-eater) 6 feet (1.8 m) long from Montana, 80-70 mya. 5 fossils were found together.
  • Brachylophosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 23 ft (7 m) long from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 75 mya.
  • Caenagnathus - a 7 ft (2 m) theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from western North America, 75 mya.
  • Centrosaurus - a 6 m long ceratopsian from about 85 million years ago, from Canada.
  • Chirostenotes - a 6.5 ft (2 m) long theropod (lightly-built, bipedal meat-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 76-73 mya.
  • Cionodon - a horse-sized duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada and Russia, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Corythosaurus - A late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur (plant-eater) with a hollow, helmet-shaped crest. From Alberta, Canada, 76-72 million years ago.
  • Daspletosaurus - a 30 ft (10 m) tyrannosaurid theropod (large, bipedal meat-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 76-72 mya.
  • Dromaeosaurus - large-brained theropod (fast, advanced, bipedal meat-eater) 6 feet (1.8 m) long, 76-72 million years old. From Alberta, Canada.
  • Dromiceiomimus - ornithomimid theropod (fast, bipedal meat-eater) 12 feet (3.5 m) long, 76-72 million years old. From Alberta, Canada.
  • Edmontonia - a plated, nodosaurid ankylosaurid (armored plant-eater) 23 ft (7 m) long. From western North America, 76-68 mya.
  • Edmontosaurus- a large, late-Cretaceous duck-bill (about 73 to 65 million years ago), 40 ft (12m) long. From western North America.
  • Eoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, small-horned, plant-eater) 13 feet (4 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 75-72 mya.
  • Eucentrosaurus - a 17 ft (5 m) long ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from 76-72 mya, from Montana, USA and Alberta, Canada.
  • Euoplocephalus  - a 20-foot long armored, plant-eating dinosaur (an ankylosaur) with a tail club. From Alberta, Canada, 76-70 mya.
  • Gorgosaurus - a 26-30 feet (8-9 m) long tyrannosaurid from Alberta, Canada. 76 to 68 mya.
  • Gravitholus - a pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Gryposaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a plant-eater) 25 m (7 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Hesperornis - a diving bird 3 ft (1 m) long that lived near the coast.
  • Hypacrosaurus - a 30 ft (9 m) duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 72-70 mya.
  • Ichthyornis - a fish-eating bird that was a powerful flyer. It was 8 inches (20 cm) long and lived near the coast.
  • Lambeosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 30 ft (9 m) long, from the western USA and Mexico, 83-65 mya.
  • Leptoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 5 feet (1.8 m) long from Wyoming, USA, and Alberta, Canada, 72-68 mya.
  • Monoclonius - A large ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater), 17 ft, (5 m) long, from Alberta, CA and Montana, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Ornatotholus - a small pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled plant-eater) 6.5 ft (2.5 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Ornithomimus - an ostrich-like theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from the late Cretaceous, 76-65 million years ago. From western North America.
  • Pachycephalosaurus  - thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater, 15 ft (4.5 m) long, from the western USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Pachyrhhinosaurus - a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 7 feet (23 m) long, from Alaska, USA, and Alberta, Canada, 72-68 mya.
  • Panoplosaurus- a nodosaurid ankylosaur (an armored, plant-eater) 18 feet (5.5 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Parasaurolophus  - a duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 30 ft (9 m) long, from western North America, 76-65 mya.
  • Parksosaurus- a hypsilophodontid (a fast-moving plant-eater with canine teeth) 7 feet (2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Prosaurolophus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 26 ft (8 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 77-73 mya.
  • Pteranodon - a flying reptile, not a dinosaur, 9 ft (2.8 m) long, weighing 37 pounds (17 kg).
  • Quetzalcoatlus - a carrion-eating flying reptile, not a dinosaur, 13 ft (4 m) long, weighing 190 pounds (86 kg).
  • Ricardoestesia - a 2 m long meat-eating dinosaur known from only its teeth.
  • Saurolophus - a duckbill (beaked plant-eater) 32 ft (8.7 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Mongolia, China, 72 to 68 mya.
  • Saurornithoides - a small, fast theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6 ft (1.8 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 76-73 mya.
  • Styracosaurus - A ceratopsian from the late Cretaceous, 77-73 million years ago. From western North America.
  • Stegoceras - a pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater) 7 ft (2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Struthiomimus - an ornithomimid theropod (ostrich-like, bipedal meat-eater) 13 ft (4 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 76-70 mya.
  • Styracosaurus - a ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater) 18 ft (5.25 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 77-73 mya.
  • Torosaurus - a ceratopsian (a horned, frilled plant-eater) 21 ft (6.2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 70-65 mya.
  • Triceratops  - “three-horned face” - 68-65 million years old, up to 30 feet long, a plant-eater. From western North America.
  • Troodon - a large-brained theropod (bipedal meat-eater), 76-70 million years old. From western North America.
  • Tyrannosaurus rex - Huge meat-eater from western North America and China, 85-65 mya.

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  • Majungasaurus - a large, poorly-known theropod (meat-eater) from Egypt and Madagascar, 83-73 mya.
  • Majungatholus - a large theropod (meat-eater) from Madagascar, 10 ft (3 m) long, 83-73 mya.
  • Masiakasaurus - a 2 m long theropod (meat-eater) from Madagascar
  • Rapetosaurus - a giant titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) from Madagascar - 15 m long

  • Adasaurus- a dromaeosaurid (advanced, bipedal meat-eater) 6 feet (2 m) long, from S.W. Mongolia, 80-73 mya.
  • Alioramus- a theropod (meat-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long from Mongolia, 73-65 mya.
  • Amtosaurus- an ankylosaur (an armored, club-tailed, plant-eater) 25 feet (7.5 m) long from Mongolia, 95-85 mya.
  • Anserimimus (“goose mimic”)- an ornithomimid (a bird-like theropod) 10 feet (3 m) long from Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Aralosaurus - a 30 ft (9 m) long duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Kazakhstan, 90-85 mya.
  • Archarornithoides- a tiny, bird-like meat-eater (a theropod) 3 feet (90 cm) long, about 3 pounds (1.5 kg) from Mongolia, 84-80 mya.
  • Arstanosaurus - a duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Kazakhstan, 87.6 - 73 mya.
  • Avimimus (“bird mimic”)- a fast, long-legged, bird-like theropod (a bipedal, meat-eater) 5 feet (1.5 m) long from Mongolia, 85-75 mya.
  • Bactrosaurus- a primitive, lambeosaurine duck-bill (a crested, plant-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long from Mongolia, 97-85 mya.
  • Bagaceratops- a small protoceratopsian (a primitive, short-frilled, plant-eater with a short nose horn) 3 feet (1 m) long from Mongolia, 70 mya.
  • Barsboldia- A hadrosaurine (a hollow-crested duck-billed plant-eater) 30 feet (10 m) long from Mongolia, 73-70 mya.
  • Borogovia - a 7 ft (2 m) long theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Byronosaurus, a 5 feet (1.5 m) long meat-eater from Tanzania.
  • Charonosaurus, a pachycephalosaur from China.
  • Citipati - an oviraptorid from Mongolia
  • Conchoraptor - a small oviraptorid (fast, bipedal, toothless meat-eater) 5 feet (1.5 m) long from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Chiayusaurus - a large sauropod (long-tailed, long-necked plant-eater) from China, 80-70 mya.
  • Chingkankousaurus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from China, 88.5-65 mya.
  • Cionodon - a horse-sized duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid) from Alberta, Canada and Russia, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Deinocheirus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater) with huge arms, from Mongolia, 75-65 mya.
  • Deltatheridium - An early mammal about 6 inches (15 cm) long - it looked like a modern-day weasel. This insect eater was from Mongolia about 70 million years ago.
  • Elmisaurus - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Enigmosaurus - a segnosaur (theropod) from the Mongolia, 97-88 mya.
  • Erlikosaurus - a segnosaur (theropod) 17 ft (5 m) long from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Gallimimus - a beaked Ornithomimid, an omnivore,17 feet (5 m) long from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Garudimimus - a beaked Ornithomimid, an omnivore,12 feet (3.5 m) long from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Gilmoreosaurus - a duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Mongolia, 85 - 80 mya.
  • Goyocephale - a flat-headed pachycephalosaurid (a plant-eater),10 feet (3 m) long from Mongolia, 85-80 mya.
  • Heishansaurus- an ankylosaur (an armored, plant-eater) from China, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Hironosaurus - a large, duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur, a beaked plant-eater) from Japan, 97.5 - 65 mya.
  • Hisanohamasaurus - a diplodocid sauropod (whip-tailed plant-eater) from Japan, 97.5 - 65 mya. Known only from some teeth.
  • Homalocephale - a pachycephalosaur (a thick-skulled plant-eater) 5 ft (1.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Hulsanpes - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 77 mya. Known only from one foot.
  • Ingenia - an ovirartorid theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Jaxartosaurus - a large, duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur, a beaked plant-eater) 30 ft (9 m), from Kazakhstan , 91 - 83 mya.
  • Khaan - an oviraptorid from Mongolia.
  • Koreanosaurus - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Korea, late Cretaceous. Known from only one leg bone.
  • Maleevosaurus - a relatively small tyrannosaurid (huge, bipedal meat-eaters), from Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Maleevus - an ankylosaurid (armored plant-eaters), 20 ft (5 ) long, from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Mandschurosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 27 ft (8 m) long, from Manchuria, China, 70 mya.
  • Megacervixosaurus - a diplodocid sauropod (whip-tailed plant-eater) from China, 97.5 - 65 mya. Known only from some teeth and vertebrae.
  • Microceratops- a tiny ceratopsian (a frilled plant-eater) 30 inches (0.76 m) long, from China, 83-65 mya.
  • Microdontosaurus - a sauropod (large, long-necked plant-eater) from China, 98 - 65 mya. Known only from some tiny teeth.
  • Microhadrosaurus - a small duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 8.75 ft (2.6 m) long, from China, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Micropachycephalosaurus - a small pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled plant-eater), from China, 83-73 mya. The dinosaur with the longest name.
  • Nanshiungosaurus - a segnosaur (theropod, meat-eater) 13 ft (4 m) long, from Nanshiung, China, 75 mya.
  • Nemegtosaurus - a large diplodocid sauropod (whip-tailed plant-eater) from Mongolia, 75 - 70 mya.
  • Nipponosaurus - a small, duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Sakhalin Island, 88-86 mya.
  • Opisthocoelicaudia - a camarasaurid sauropod (long-tailed, long-necked plant-eater with a box-like head) from Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Oviraptor - a small, omnivorous, toothless, bipedal theropod, from Mongolia, 88-70 mya.
  • Pinacosaurus - an ankylosaurid (armored, tank-like plant-eater) 12 feet (3.5 m) long from Mongolia, China, 85-81 mya.
  • Prenocephale - a pachycephalosaur (a thick-skulled plant-eater) 7 ft (2 m) long, from Mongolia, 77-69 mya.
  • Protoceratops- a primitive ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater), 8 ft (2.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 72 to 65 mya.
  • Quaesitosaurus - a diplodocid sauropod (long-necked, whip-tailed plant-eater) from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 85-80 mya.
  • Rajasaurus - an Abelisaur 9 m long from India, Maastrichtian.
  • Saichania - an ankylosaurid (armored, tank-like plant-eater with a tail club and spikes) 24 feet (7 m) long from Mongolia, 79-75 mya.
  • Saurolophus - 72 to 68 million years ago, a duckbill from Alberta, Canada and Mongolia, China.
  • Saurornithoides - a small, fast, intelligent, troodontid theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6.5 ft (1.9 m) long, from Mongolia, 85-77 mya.
  • Segnosaurus - a theropod (meat-eater) 20 feet (6.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Shanshanosaurus - a small theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 8.5 ft (2.5 m) long, from China, 83-65 mya.
  • Shantungosaurus - a huge duckbill (beaked plant-eater) 51 ft (15 m) long, from China, 83-73 mya.
  • Shuvuuia - a small theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 3 ft (1.9 m) long, from Mongolia, 85-75 mya.
  • Stegosaurides - a poorly-known ornithischian (plant-eater) from NW China, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Talarurus- an ankylosaurid (an armored, club-tailed, plant-eater) 16 feet (5 m) long, from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Tanius - a large duckbill (beaked plant-eater) from China, 88.5-65 mya.
  • Tarchia - an ankylosaurid (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater with a tail club) from Mongolia, 78-69 mya.
  • Therizinosaurus - a large, unusual theropod from Mongolia, 77-69 mya.
  • Tochisaurus - a small Troodontid theropod (fast-moving, intelligent, bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 77-69 mya.
  • Turanoceratops- a small ceratopsian (a horned, frilled, plant-eater) from Russia, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Tylocephale- a small pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled, dome-headed plant-eater), 7 ft (2.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 80-75 mya.
  • Tyrannosaurus rex - 85-65 million years old. From western North America and China.
  • Velociraptor - (meaning “quick predator”) - a theropod (meat-eater) about 6 feet (1.8 m) long, from Mongolia, China, 85-80 million years ago.
  • Wannanosaurus - a small (less than 3ft = 1m long) pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled plant-eater), from China, 83-73 mya.
  • Zalambdalestes - a primitive placental mammal, about 8 inches (20 cm) long. This insectivore looked like a modern-day elephant shrew, had large eyes, a long, upturned snout, and long feet. Found in Mongolia, Asia.

  • N/A

  • N/A

  • Betasuchus - a poorly-known theropod (meat-eater) from Holland, 70-65 mya.
  • Bradycneme - a theropod (meat-eater) from Romania, 73-65 mya.
  • Craspedodon - a large iguanodontid (a plant-eater with thumb spikes) from Belgium, 87.5-83 mya.
  • Crataeomus - a poorly-known nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from Hungary, 91-88.5 mya.
  • Euronychodon - a small theropod (meat-eater) from Portugal, 75-65 mya.
  • Heptasteornis - a small theropod (meat-eater) from Transylvania, Romania, 73-65 mya.
  • Hypselosaurus - a small titanosaurud sauropod (an armored, long-necked plant-eater) 27 ft (8 m) long, from France and Spain, 73-65 mya. Its huge eggs were also found.
  • Leipsanosaurus - a poorly-known nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from Transylvania, Romania, 91-88.5 mya.
  • Magyarosaurus - a large, poorly-known titanosaurud sauropod (armored, long-necked plant-eater) 27 ft (8 m) long, from Hungary and Romania, 70-65 mya.
  • Orthomerus - a small, poorly-known duck-bill (a beaked plant-eater) from Holland, 72-65 mya.
  • Pyroraptor - a deinonychosaur from France
  • Rhabdodon - a solidly-built ornithischian (a plant-eater) from Austria, France, Hungary, and Romania, 83-65 mya.
  • Rhodanosaurus - a nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from France, 73-65 mya.
  • Struthiosaurus - a nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from Austria and Romania, 83-65 mya.
  • Tarascosaurus - a theropod (meat-eater) from France, 83-80 mya.
  • Taveirosaurus - a small pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater) from Portugal, 73-65 mya. A doubtful genus.
  • Telmatosaurus - a duckbill (beaked plant-eater) 16 ft (5 m) long, from France and Romania, 83-65 mya.
  • Thescelosaurus - a hypsilophodontid (fast-moving plant-eater) 12 ft (3.5 m) long, from western North America, 77-65 mya. Its fossilized, 4-chambered heart heas been found.
  • Vectensia - a nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from England, 97-65 mya.

  • Brachypodosaurus - a poorly-known ankylosaur (armored plant-eater) from India, 88-73 mya.
  • Coeluroids - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 88.5 -83 mya.
  • Compsosuchus - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 70 -65 mya.
  • Dravidosaurus - a stegosaurid (plated plant-eater), 10 ft (3 m) long, from India, 88.5-87.5 mya.
  • Dryptosauroids - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 97.5 -65 mya.
  • Indosaurus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from Jabalpur, India, 70 -65 mya.
  • Indosuchus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from Jabalpur, India, 70 -65 mya.
  • Jubbulpuria - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 4 ft (1.2 m) long, from India, 73 -65 mya.
  • Laevisuchus - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 7 ft (2.1 m) long, from India, 73 -65 mya.
  • Lametasaurus - a poorly-known ankylosaur (armored plant-eater) from India, 73-65 mya.
  • Ornithomimoides - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater), 7 ft (2.1 m) long, from India, 88.5 -83 mya.
  • Orthogoniosaurus - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 95 -65 mya. Only a tooth was found.
  • Titanosaurus - a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked quadrupedal plant-eater), from India, 83-65 mya.

  • Alphadon - a primitive marsupial mammal, about 1 foot (30 cm) long. This omnivore (eating insects, small animals, seeds and fruit) lived in trees, had opposable toes, and a prehensile tail. Found in western North America from Alberta, Canada to New Mexico, USA.
  • Anatotitan - 70-65 million years old, a duck-billed plant-eater. From western North America.
  • Alamosaurus- a 70 feet (21 m) long Titanosaurud (sauropod) from southwestern USA, 73-65 mya.
  • Albertosaurus - A carnivore similar to Tyrannosaurus, but smaller. 76-74 million years old. From western North America.
  • Anchiceratops- a ceratopsian 20 feet (6 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 73-70 mya.
  • Ankylosaurus - The last armor-plated dinosaur (a plant eater), 70-65 million years ago, as big as a tank. From western North America.
  • Archelon - A huge sea turtle covered with horny plates. It was 10-13 feet (3-4 m) long and had paddle-like limbs.
  • Arrhinoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 72-68 mya.
  • Aublysodon - a 15 ft (4.5 m) theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from western North America, 76-65 mya.
  • Avaceratops- one of the smallest ceratopsians (frilled, horned, plant-eaters), 7 feet (2 m) long from Montana, 77-73 mya.
  • Bambiraptor, a small meat-eater from Montana, USA.
  • Brachyceratops- A ceratopsian (a frilled, small-horned, plant-eater) 6 feet (1.8 m) long from Montana, 80-70 mya. 5 fossils were found together.
  • Brachylophosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 23 ft (7 m) long from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 75 mya.
  • Caenagnathus - a 7 ft (2 m) theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from western North America, 75 mya.
  • Centrosaurus - a 6 m long ceratopsian from about 85 million years ago, from Canada.
  • Ceratops - a 25 ft (7.5 m) long ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from 80-73 mya, from Montana, USA.
  • Chirostenotes - a 6.5 ft (2 m) long theropod (lightly-built, bipedal meat-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 76-73 mya.
  • Cionodon - a horse-sized duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada and Russia, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Claorhynchus - a poorly-known ceratopsian (horned, frilled, plant-eater) from 83-73 mya, from Montana, USA.
  • Claosaurus - a 12 ft (3.5 m) duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Kansas, USA, 80-75 mya.
  • Corythosaurus - A late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur (plant-eater) with a hollow, helmet-shaped crest. From Alberta, Canada, 76-72 million years ago.
  • Daspletosaurus - a 30 ft (10 m) tyrannosaurid theropod (large, bipedal meat-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 76-72 mya.
  • Deinodon - the first tyrannosaurid named, a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Montana, USA, 75-70 mya.
  • Diceratops - a 30 ft (9 m) long ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater) from Wyoming, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Diclonius - a 27 ft (8 m) duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Montana, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Diplotomodon - a large theropod (a bipedal meat eater). From New Jersey, USA, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Dromaeosaurus - large-brained theropod (fast, advanced, bipedal meat-eater) 6 feet (1.8 m) long, 76-72 million years old. From Alberta, Canada.
  • Dromiceiomimus - ornithomimid theropod (fast, bipedal meat-eater) 12 feet (3.5 m) long, 76-72 million years old. From Alberta, Canada.
  • Dryptosaurus - A theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long. 70-65 million years ago ). From eastern North America.
  • Dysganus - a poorly-known ceratopsian (horned, frilled, plant-eater) from 83-73 mya, from Montana, USA.
  • Dyslocosaurus - a small, diplodocid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater), 65 ft (20 m) long, from 68-65 mya, from Wyoming, USA.
  • Edmontonia - a plated, nodosaurid ankylosaurid (armored plant-eater) 23 ft (7 m) long. From western North America, 76-68 mya.
  • Edmontosaurus- a large, late-Cretaceous duck-bill (about 73 to 65 million years ago), 40 ft (12m) long. From western North America.
  • Einiosaurus - a ceratopsian (plant-eater) from Montana, USA, 93-89 mya.
  • Eoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, small-horned, plant-eater) 13 feet (4 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 75-72 mya.
  • Eucentrosaurus - a 17 ft (5 m) long ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from 76-72 mya, from Montana, USA and Alberta, Canada.
  • Euoplocephalus  - a 20-foot long armored, plant-eating dinosaur (an ankylosaur) with a tail club. From Alberta, Canada, 76-70 mya.
  • Gorgosaurus - a 26-30 feet (8-9 m) long tyrannosaurid from Alberta, Canada. 76 to 68 mya.
  • Gravitholus - a pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Gryposaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a plant-eater) 25 m (7 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Hadrosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a plant-eater) 25 m (7 m) long from Haddonfield, NJ, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Hesperornis - a diving bird 3 ft (1 m) long that lived near the coast.
  • Hypacrosaurus - a 30 ft (9 m) duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 72-70 mya.
  • Hypsibema - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from North Carolina, USA, 83-73 mya. Known from only 5 bones.
  • Ichthyornis - a fish-eating bird that was a powerful flyer. It was 8 inches (20 cm) long and lived near the coast.
  • Kritosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 30 ft (9 m) long, from New Mexico, USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Lambeosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 30 ft (9 m) long, from the western USA and Mexico, 83-65 mya.
  • Leptoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 5 feet (1.8 m) long from Wyoming, USA, and Alberta, Canasa, 72-68 mya.
  • Lophorhothon - a flat-headed, duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 15 ft (4.5 m) long, from Alabama, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Maiasaura - A herding, duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 30 ft (9 m) long, from Montana, USA, 80-65 mya.
  • Monoclonius - A large ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater), 17 ft, (5 m) long, from Alberta, CA and Montana, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Montanoceratops - a primitive, ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater), 6 ft (1.8 m). From Montana, 73-70 mya.
  • Nanotyrannus - the smallest tyrannosaurid (bipedal meat-eaters) from Montana, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Nedcolbertia - a small theropod (bipedal plant-eaters) from Utah, USA, 127 to 121 mya.
  • Nothronychus - a therizinosaur from New Mexico, USA, 94-90 mya
  • Ornatotholus - a small pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled plant-eater) 6.5 ft (2.5 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Ornithomimus - an ostrich-like theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from the late Cretaceous, 76-65 million years ago. From western North America.
  • Ornithotarsus - a large duckbill (beaked plant-eater), from New Jesey, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Orodromeus - a small hypsilophodontid (a fast-moving, bipedal plant eater, an ornithopod) from Montana, USA, 77-73 mya. Eggs and embryos were also found.
  • Pachycephalosaurus  - thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater, 15 ft (4.5 m) long, from the western USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Pachyrhhinosaurus - a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 7 feet (23 m) long, from Alaska, USA, and Alberta, Canada, 72-68 mya.
  • Palaeoscincus- a nodosaurid ankylosaur (an armored, plant-eater) 18 feet (5.5 m) long, from Montana, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Panoplosaurus- a nodosaurid ankylosaur (an armored, plant-eater) 18 feet (5.5 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Parasaurolophus  - a duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 30 ft (9 m) long, from western North America, 76-65 mya.
  • Parksosaurus- a hypsilophodontid (a fast-moving plant-eater with canine teeth) 7 feet (2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Pentaceratops - a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 28 feet (8 m) long, from New Mexico, USA, 75-65 mya.
  • Prosaurolophus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 26 ft (8 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 77-73 mya.
  • Pteranodon - a flying reptile, not a dinosaur, 9 ft (2.8 m) long, weighing 37 pounds (17 kg).
  • Purgatorius - the earliest-known primate (a type of mammal), about 4 inches (10 cm) long. Known from a single fossilized tooth found in Montana, USA. From the late Cretaceous to the early Paleocene.
  • Quetzalcoatlus - a carrion-eating flying reptile, not a dinosaur, 13 ft (4 m) long, weighing 190 pounds (86 kg).
  • Ricardoestesia - a 2 m long meat-eating dinosaur known from only its teeth.
  • Saurolophus - a duckbill (beaked plant-eater) 32 ft (8.7 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Mongolia, China, 72 to 68 mya.
  • Saurornithoides - a small, fast theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6 ft (1.8 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 76-73 mya.
  • Styracosaurus - A ceratopsian from the late Cretaceous, 77-73 million years ago. From western North America.
  • Stegoceras - a pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater) 7 ft (2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Struthiomimus - an ornithomimid theropod (ostrich-like, bipedal meat-eater) 13 ft (4 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 76-70 mya.
  • Stygimoloch - a horned pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater) from Montana, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Styracosaurus - a ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater) 18 ft (5.25 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 77-73 mya.
  • Torosaurus - a ceratopsian (a horned, frilled plant-eater) 21 ft (6.2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 70-65 mya.
  • Trachodon - an ornithischian (a poorly-known plant-eater) 21 ft (6.2 m) long, from Montana, USA, 77-73 mya. Trachodon is probably the same as Edmontosaurus.
  • Triceratops  - “three-horned face” - 68-65 million years old, up to 30 feet long, a plant-eater. From western North America.
  • Troodon - a large-brained theropod (bipedal meat-eater), 76-70 million years old. From western North America.
  • Tyrannosaurus rex - Huge meat-eater from western North America and China, 85-65 mya.
  • Ugrosaurus - a large ceratopsian (horned, frilled, plant-eater) from Montana, 68 - 65 mya.
  • Zapsalis - a meat-eater from Montana

  • Abelisaurus - a theropod (a bipedal meat-eater) 26 feet (7.9 m) long. Known from an incomplete skull from Patagonia, Argentina, 70 mya.
  • Aeolosaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor) 50 feet (15 m) long from Argentina, 75-70 mya.
  • Alvarezsaurus- a long-tailed theropod (meat-eater) 6 feet (2 m) long from Argentina, 80 mya.
  • Antarctosaurus- one of the largest dinosaurs, found in 1916- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), 100 feet (30 m) long, from Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 83-65 mya.
  • Araucanoraptor- a coelurosaur theropod (meat-eater) 8 feet (2.5 m) long from Argentina, roughly 90 mya.
  • Argentinosaurus, a huge sauropod 130+ feet (40 m) long long from Argentina, this may be the largest dinosaur.
  • Argyrosaurus - a 70 ft (21 m) long sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina and Uruguay, 73-65 mya.
  • Campylodoniscus- a large sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 97-85 mya.
  • Clasmosaurus - a large sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 95 mya.
  • Epachthosaurus - a sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 87.5 mya. Known from only one vertebra.
  • Gasparinisaura - a 31 inches (80 cm) long iguanodontid from Patagonia, 90 to 83 mya.
  • Genyodectes - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Argentina.
  • Laplatasaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) 60 feet (18 m) long from Argentina, 83-65 mya.
  • Microsaurops- a relatively small titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), from Argentina, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Neuquensaurus- a large, titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), from Argentina, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Noasaurus - a small theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6 ft (1.8 m) long, from Argentina, 75 -65 mya. It had a huge claw on each foot.
  • Notoceratops - a ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from Patagonia, Argentina, 83-73 mya.
  • Quilmesaurus - a theropod from Patagonia
  • Saltasaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor) 40 feet (12 m) long from Argentina, 83-79 mya.
  • Secernosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur, a beaked plant-eater) 10 ft (3 m) long from Argentina, 73-65 mya.
  • Unquillosaurus - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 36 ft (11 m) long, from Argentina, 83 -73 mya.
  • Velocisaurus - a small, fast theropod (meat-eater) from Argentina, 73-65 mya.
  • Xenotarsosaurus - a mid-sized theropod (meat-eater) from Argentina, 83-73 mya. Known from leg bones only.

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FOSSILS FOUND: Partial skeletons, some very well complete.

BONES FOUND INCLUDE: Partial neck frill.

WHERE IT WAS FOUND: Alberta, Canada and Texas, USA.

TERRAIN TYPE: Woodlands

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INTERESTING FACTS:  A close relative of Centrosaurus, and thus a “centrosaurine” ceratopsian, Chasmosaurus was distinguished by the shape of its enormous frill, which spread out over its head in a rectangular shape. Paleontologists speculate that this giant awning of bone and skin may have taken on bright colors during mating season—kind of like a movie screen for the opposite sex—and may also have been used to signal other members of the herd.

OTHER INFORMATION: Perhaps because the addition of huge horns would have been simply too much (even for the dinosaur age), Chasmosaurus had relatively short, blunt horns for a ceratopsian, certainly nothing approaching the dangerous horns of Triceratops. By the way, Chasmosaurus is one of the earliest ceratopsians ever to be discovered, by the famous paleontologist Lawrence M. Lambe in 1898 (the genus was later “diagnosed,” on the basis of additional fossil remains, by Charles R. Sternberg).

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KINGDOM: Animalia

PHYLUM: Chordata

CLASS: Reptilia

SUPERORDER: Dinosauria

ORDER: Ornithischia

SUBORDER: Ceratopsia

INFRAORDER: N/A

SUPERFAMILY: N/A

FAMILY: Ceratopsidae

SUBFAMILY: Chasmosaurinae

TRIBE: N/A

NODE: N/A

BRANCH: N/A

GENUS: Chasmosaurus

-Lambe, 1914

SPECIES: C. belli

-Lambe, 1914

C. russelli

-Sternberg, 1940

TYPE SPECIES: N/A

-

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DATABASE NUMBER: N/A

REASON FOR FEATURING: ROM’s Ultimate Dinosaurs: Giants from Gondwana.

POST NUMBER: 6/50

Walking with Dinosaurs: Cruel Sea

Hello everyone!

For the last post of the day, I am posting our featured documentary. This is the third episode of six, and will continue until Saturday. This episode of Walking with Dinosaurs is about the sea, and how it can be cruel. How many creatures live and survive in it. 

The most fearsome predator of the Jurassic period is watching his prey. Peering through the water, the carnivore fixes on his unweary victim, waiting for the perfect moment to strike.

Under these waters lies the future continent of Europe. But now in the late Jurassic period, all that exists here are a few scattered islands. The break up of the old continent has pushes the ocean floor and raised sea levels, flooding the lowlands, and creating vast shallow seas.

Here, Dinosaurs do not rule. Instead, giant marine reptiles live here and evolved, perfectly adapted to life in these beautiful waters. All of these are air breathers, like this 8 ton Cryptoclidus. On the land they are gentle creatures but in the water they are transformed.

Cryptoclidus is estimated to have weighed about 8 tons. Its head was rather flattened, with eyes facing upward. The skull was broad and light, with jaws lined with about a hundred long, fine teeth, ideal for catching fish and squid. The internal nares were set forward, and the nostrils were relatively small. At up to 8 metres (26 ft) long, Cryptoclidus was a medium-sized plesiosaur. It had a neck that was up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) long that does not seem to have been very flexible. This probably kept its bulky body away from its small head so as not to alarm potential prey. It had four broad paddle-shaped limbs, with which it either “flew” through the water in wave-like undulating movements, or swam like a porpoise by moving upwards on two flippers and gliding back down again on the other two.

Due to their seal-like body plan, small plesiosaurs such as Cryptoclidus have been depicted as amphibious animals instead of fully marine reptiles. Despite looking clumsy and cumbersome, in water it would have been relatively graceful, using all four limbs as paddles, to swim and hunt its prey. It may have laid eggs in sand, but this is conjectural.

The fragile build of the head and teeth preclude any grappling with prey, and suggest a diet of small, soft-bodied animals such as squid and shoaling fish. Cryptoclidus may have used its long, intermeshing teeth to strain small prey from the water, or perhaps sift through sediment for buried animals. The size and shape of the nares and nasal openings have led Brown and Cruickshank (1994) to argue that they were used to sample seawater for smells and chemical traces.

All sea reptiles once lived on land. But 75 million years ago these ancestors of these creatures  took to the water, and their legs became graceful flippers.

They share this shallow sea with other strange, Jurassic creatures like the Ammonites that ride the currents, gathering small prey with in their tenticles.

These rich, sun-lit waters are on the Northern edge of the sea that separates the Earth’s two continents. One in the North, one in the South.

Once a year they are the stage for a remarkable drama.

Because ammonites and their close relatives are extinct, little is known about their way of life. Their soft body parts are very rarely preserved in any detail. Nonetheless, much has been worked out by examining ammonoid shells and by using models of these shells in water tanks. Many ammonoids probably lived in the open water of ancient seas, rather than at the sea bottom. This is suggested by the fact that their fossils are often found in rocks that were laid down under conditions where no bottom-dwelling life is found. Many of them (such as Oxynoticeras) are thought to have been good swimmers with flattened, discus-shaped, streamlined shells, although some ammonoids were less effective swimmers and were likely to have been slow-swimming bottom-dwellers. Synchrotron analysis of an aptychophoran ammonite revealed remains of isopod and mollusc larva in its buccal cavity, indicating that at least this kind of ammonite fed on plankton. They may have avoided predation by squirting ink, much like modern cephalopods; ink is occasionally preserved in fossil specimens. The soft body of the creature occupied the largest segments of the shell at the end of the coil. The smaller earlier segments were walled off and the animal could maintain its buoyancy by filling them with gas. Thus the smaller sections of the coil would have floated above the larger sections.

It starts with a single pregnant Opthalmosaurus, followed by hundreds more of her kind. All are gathering here from deeper water, to give birth. These are the oldest of Marine reptiles, and the most completely adapted to aquatic life.

With stream lined, fish-like bodies. Most other Marine reptiles like Cryptoclidus use their foreflippers to chase the blizzards of fish through the water.

Flapping like underwater wings, these flippers can be used separately to give them enormous manueverability. All together, for sudden bursts of speed. This unique method of locomotion is destined to disappear from the ocean, at the end of the age of the Dinosaurs.

The animals on the small islands above also depend on the seas bounty for their survival.

Among the jagged rocks, live a colony of flying reptiles. These sea Pterosaurs have evolved a unique way of catching fish without getting their wing membranes wet.

Their stream line beaks skim through the water, grabbing everything in their path.

The Brown Pelican occurs on both coasts in the Americas. On the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast they distribute from Nova Scotia to Venezuela, and to the mouth of the Amazon River. On the Pacific Ocean they are found from British Columbia to south central Chile, and including the Galapagos Islands. Some immature birds may stray to inland freshwater lakes. After nesting, North American birds move in flocks further north along the coasts, returning to warmer waters for winter. Their young are hatched in broods of about 3, and eat around 150 lbs. of fish in the 8–10 month period they are cared for. This bird is distinguished from the American White Pelican by its brown body and its habit of diving for fish from the air, as opposed to co-operative fishing from the surface. It eats mainly fish and amphibians as well as crustaceans. Groups of Brown Pelicans often travel in single file, flying low over the water’s surface.

The teeth of these flying reptiles may look bizarre, but they are ideal for snatching slippery fish from the water.

How ever, swallowing their catch is a different matter.

The Opthalmosaurus are starting to give birth. Most sea reptiles return to the land to give birth, but not Opthalmosaurus. They give birth to live young. This frees the adults from the need to crawl out of the water, and has allowed them to evolve their fish-like shapes.

A single female between has between 2 and 5 pups, but since they are air-breathers, the young must be born tail first, otherwise they would drown in the time it takes for them to escape from their mother.

The new born pups have just a few seconds to reach the surface and take their first breath of air. From the moment they are born, these little pups are vulnerable. These waters are full of predators. Even adult Opthalmosaurus will eat the offspring of others to increase their chance for survival for their own pups.

The only real safety is among the coral.

Birth is a dangerous time for the mothers, too. This female is fighting desparately to expel her unborn offspring, gasping for air near the surface. Her struggles are a lure to sharks. These predators have acute hearing and the sound of splashing portrays an animal in distress.

The modernized sharks that evolved in the Jurassic included the “normal” shaped sharks and the flat-bodied skate/ray group. The skates and rays of the Late Jurassic at Solnhofen had already evolved a modern stage of vertebral column, fins and jaws. Guitar-fish are rays with long, elegant, pointed snouts. The Solnhofen Guitar Fish Rhinobatis is so thoroughly modern-looking that it would look at home today in Bermuda or Sumatra. Wide, flat pectoral fins and a flat underside let the guitar-fish hug the sand while searching for shrimp buried beneath. Special sensory organs could detect the electrical impulses from living bodies hidden from view. They had tightly packed rows of small, blunt teeth worked to crush clams, snails and other hard-shelled prey.

This concludes our third post on this weeks Featured Documentary, Walking with Dinosaurs ep 3: Cruel Sea. Tomorrow we will feature the fourth episode, out of 6. We hope you enjoyed it!

Featured Paleontologist: Robert Bakker

Today we are featuring one of the greatest Paleontologists to have ever lived. This is our first Paleontologist feature of the month, and you can expect many, many more as the days come!

Robert T. Bakker (born March 24, 1945) is an American paleontologist who helped reshape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were endothermic (warm-blooded). Along with his mentor John Ostrom, Bakker was responsible for initiating the ongoing “dinosaur renaissance” in paleontological studies, beginning with Bakker’s article “Dinosaur Renaissance” in Scientific American, April 1975. His special field is the ecological context and behavior of dinosaurs.

Bakker has been a major proponent of the theory that dinosaurs were “warm-blooded”, smart, fast, and adaptable. He published his first paper on dinosaur endothermy in 1968. His seminal work, The Dinosaur Heresies, was published in 1986. He revealed the first evidence of parental care at nesting sites for Allosaurus. Bakker was among the advisors for the film Jurassic Park and for the 1992 PBS series, The Dinosaurs. He also observed evidence in support of Eldredge’s and Gould’s theory of punctuated equilibrium in dinosaur populations. Bakker currently serves as the Curator of Paleontology for the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

Bakker was born in Bergen County, New Jersey. He attributes his interest in dinosaurs to his reading an article in the September 7, 1953, issue of Life magazine. He graduated from Ridgewood High School in 1963.

At Yale University, Bakker studied under John Ostrom, an early proponent of the new view of dinosaurs, and later gained a PhD at Harvard. He began by teaching anatomy at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland and Earth and Space Sciences, where future artist Gregory S. Paul worked and collaborated informally under his guidance. Most of his field work has been done in Wyoming, especially at Como Bluff, but he has ranged as far as Mongolia and South Africa in pursuit of dinosaur habitats.

In his 1986 work The Dinosaur Heresies, Bakker puts forth the theory that dinosaurs were warm-blooded, his evidence for which includes:

  • Almost all animals that walk upright today are warm-blooded, and dinosaurs walked upright.
  • The hearts of warm-blooded animals can pump much more effectively than the hearts of cold-blooded animals. Therefore, the giant Brachiosaurus must have had the type of hearts associated with warm-blooded animals, in order to pump blood all the way up to its head.
  • Dinosaurs such as Deinonychus led a very active life, which is much more compatible with a warm-blooded animal.
  • Some dinosaurs lived in northern latitudes where it would be impossible for cold-blooded dinosaurs to keep warm.
  • The rapid rate of speciation and evolution found in dinosaurs is typical of warm blooded animals and atypical of cold blooded animals.
  • The predator/prey ratio of predatory dinosaurs to their prey is a signature trait of warm-blooded predators rather than cold-blooded ones.
  • Birds are warm-blooded. Birds evolved from dinosaurs, therefore a change to a warm-blooded metabolism must have taken place at some point; there is far more change between dinosaurs and their ancestors, the archosaurs, than between dinosaurs and birds.
  • Warm-blooded metabolisms are evolutionary advantages for top predators and large herbivores; if the dinosaurs had not been warm-blooded there should be fossil evidence showing mammals evolving to fill these ecological niches. No such evidence exists; in fact mammals by the end of the Cretaceous had become smaller and smaller from their mammal-like-reptile ancestors.
  • Dinosaurs grew rapidly, evidence for which can be found by observing cross-sections of their bones. Warm-blooded animals grow at a similar rate.

His novel Raptor Red tells of a year in the life of a female Utahraptor of the lower Cretaceous. In the story, Bakker elaborates on his knowledge of the behavior of dromaeosaurids (“raptor” dinosaurs) and life at the time of their existence.

His book The Dinosaur Heresies first propelled him to popular attention.

The bearded paleontologist Dr. Robert Burke, who is eaten by a Tyrannosaurus rex in Steven Spielberg’s film The Lost World: Jurassic Park, is an affectionate caricature of Bakker. In real life, Bakker has argued for a predatory T. rex, while Bakker’s rival paleontologist Jack Horner views it as primarily a scavenger. According to Horner, Spielberg wrote the character of Burke and had him killed by the T. rex as a favor for Horner. After the film came out, Bakker recognized himself in Burke, loved the caricature, and actually sent Horner a message saying, “See, I told you T. rex was a hunter!”

This concludes our post on Robert Bakker. Don’t forget to check in regularly for new posts on your favorite and the worlds greatest Paleontologists!


Ceratopsian Differences: Archaeoceratops and Auroraceratops

Hello everyone!

I would like to start the conversation on whether or not Archaeoceratops and Auroraceratops are related to each other.

They both lived in the Early Cretaceous period, they both lived in what is now central China, they lived side-by-side, and yet their considered two totally different animals.

Now I would like to refer to the images of the skulls of both Archaeoceratops and Auroraceratops.

Here, we have the skeletal drawings of both Archaeoceratops and Auroraceratops.

I would like to begin, with the relative similarities. Archaeoceratops will be labeled as (1), and Auroraceratops will be labeled as (2).

RELATIVE SIMILARITIES

  • (1) is much more curved in the postorbital and squamosal areas than (2)
  • (2) shows signs, particularly in the postorbital area, of curvature, seemingly in relation to (1).
  • (1) is much more curved and elongated in the angular area than (2), but (2) is starting to show signs of the same curvature, also sporting the same bumps along the jaw as (1), seeming to be in relation of each other.
  • The Predentary area of (1) is much more elongated and curved upwards, but (2) is also showing a very subtle structural curve near the tip ending, suggesting the possibility.
  • The Teeth between (1) and (2) are almost exactly alike, the only differences being that the teeth of (1) are bigger, and broad, when compared to (2), which are delicately small and pointed in towards the throat.

UNRELATIVE SIMILARITIES

  • (1) has a rostral (the tip ending portion of the top jaw, being a beak.) (1) sports a full, complete beak, while (2) has only the predentary (or the bottom of a beak.)
  • (2) has a separation of the nasal area, giving it two sides, L and R Nasal areas, while (1) has no separation, giving it one general Nasal area. The separation in the Nasal area of (2) is common among young Dinosaurs, or juveniles, giving it the possibility of generating in to (1).

These are general facts and information, and is currently being used in our research, being conducted from the beginning of May, lasting until at least August.

We’d like to know your feelings and thoughts on the subject.

Feel free to ask questions and email us your thoughts on this matter, at the email address provided below.

PaleontologicalStudiesSC@live.com

We will be posting frequent information in relation to our research for your education, coming soon!

Futalognkosaurus Information Sheet

This is a Royal Ontario Museum Feature. This Information Sheet is on Futalognkosaurus, and this is another one of the 16 massive Dinosaurs you can expect to see at the Royal Ontario Museum this summer in their upcoming exhibit Ultimate Dinosaurs!

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NAME: Futalognkosaurus

NAMED BY: Calvo

NAME MEANING: Giant chief lizard

DATE NAMED: 2007

DISCOVERED BY: Calvo

DESCRIBED BY: Calvo, Porfiri, González-Riga, & Kellner

PRONOUNCIATION: FOO-tah-LONK-oh-SORE-us

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SPECIAL FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS: Extremely elongated neck and tail.

LENGTH: 105-111 ft, 32-34m

HEIGHT: N/A

WEIGHT: 60 - 75 tons

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PERIOD: Late Cretaceous 

MILLION YEARS AGO: 80

HABITAT FOUND IN: Woodlands

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Podocarpus, Betulaceae (like Alnus), Araliaceae (like Aralia), conifers (like Araucarioxylon, Metasequoia, and Pinus), Corneaceae (like Cornus), Cycadeodias (like Cycadeoidea), Fagaceae (like Quercus - oak), Filincophyta (like Dryophyllum), Filincophyta (like Tetrastichia ), Ginkgophyta (like Ginkgo), Lauraceae (like Laurus and Sassafras), Magnoliaceae (like Magnolia), Moraceae (like Ficus), Palmae (Palmus), Pandanaceae (Pandanus), and Salicaceae (like Populus and Salicaceae).

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DIET: Herbivore

MOBILITY: Quadrupedal

REPRODUCTION: Assumed to lay eggs

INTELLIGENCE: Low

BEHAVIOR: Assumed to be slow moving creatures, and sauropods in general have small brains and low EQ.

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  • Abelisaurus - a theropod (a bipedal meat-eater) 26 feet (7.9 m) long. Known from an incomplete skull from Patagonia, Argentina, 70 mya.
  • Aeolosaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor) 50 feet (15 m) long from Argentina, 75-70 mya.
  • Alvarezsaurus- a long-tailed theropod (meat-eater) 6 feet (2 m) long from Argentina, 80 mya.
  • Antarctosaurus- one of the largest dinosaurs, found in 1916- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), 100 feet (30 m) long, from Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 83-65 mya.
  • Araucanoraptor- a coelurosaur theropod (meat-eater) 8 feet (2.5 m) long from Argentina, roughly 90 mya.
  • Argentinosaurus, a huge sauropod 130+ feet (40 m) long long from Argentina, this may be the largest dinosaur.
  • Argyrosaurus - a 70 ft (21 m) long sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina and Uruguay, 73-65 mya.
  • Campylodoniscus- a large sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 97-85 mya.
  • Clasmosaurus - a large sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 95 mya.
  • Epachthosaurus - a sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 87.5 mya. Known from only one vertebra.
  • Gasparinisaura - a 31 inches (80 cm) long iguanodontid from Patagonia, 90 to 83 mya.
  • Genyodectes - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Argentina.
  • Laplatasaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) 60 feet (18 m) long from Argentina, 83-65 mya.
  • Microsaurops- a relatively small titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), from Argentina, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Neuquensaurus- a large, titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), from Argentina, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Noasaurus - a small theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6 ft (1.8 m) long, from Argentina, 75 -65 mya. It had a huge claw on each foot.
  • Notoceratops - a ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from Patagonia, Argentina, 83-73 mya.
  • Quilmesaurus - a theropod from Patagonia
  • Saltasaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor) 40 feet (12 m) long from Argentina, 83-79 mya.
  • Secernosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur, a beaked plant-eater) 10 ft (3 m) long from Argentina, 73-65 mya.
  • Unquillosaurus - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 36 ft (11 m) long, from Argentina, 83 -73 mya.
  • Velocisaurus - a small, fast theropod (meat-eater) from Argentina, 73-65 mya.
  • Xenotarsosaurus - a mid-sized theropod (meat-eater) from Argentina, 83-73 mya. Known from leg bones only.

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  • Majungasaurus - a large, poorly-known theropod (meat-eater) from Egypt and Madagascar, 83-73 mya.
  • Majungatholus - a large theropod (meat-eater) from Madagascar, 10 ft (3 m) long, 83-73 mya.
  • Masiakasaurus - a 2 m long theropod (meat-eater) from Madagascar
  • Rapetosaurus - a giant titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) from Madagascar - 15 m long

  • Adasaurus- a dromaeosaurid (advanced, bipedal meat-eater) 6 feet (2 m) long, from S.W. Mongolia, 80-73 mya.
  • Alioramus- a theropod (meat-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long from Mongolia, 73-65 mya.
  • Amtosaurus- an ankylosaur (an armored, club-tailed, plant-eater) 25 feet (7.5 m) long from Mongolia, 95-85 mya.
  • Anserimimus (“goose mimic”)- an ornithomimid (a bird-like theropod) 10 feet (3 m) long from Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Aralosaurus - a 30 ft (9 m) long duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Kazakhstan, 90-85 mya.
  • Archarornithoides- a tiny, bird-like meat-eater (a theropod) 3 feet (90 cm) long, about 3 pounds (1.5 kg) from Mongolia, 84-80 mya.
  • Arstanosaurus - a duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Kazakhstan, 87.6 - 73 mya.
  • Avimimus (“bird mimic”)- a fast, long-legged, bird-like theropod (a bipedal, meat-eater) 5 feet (1.5 m) long from Mongolia, 85-75 mya.
  • Bactrosaurus- a primitive, lambeosaurine duck-bill (a crested, plant-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long from Mongolia, 97-85 mya.
  • Bagaceratops- a small protoceratopsian (a primitive, short-frilled, plant-eater with a short nose horn) 3 feet (1 m) long from Mongolia, 70 mya.
  • Barsboldia- A hadrosaurine (a hollow-crested duck-billed plant-eater) 30 feet (10 m) long from Mongolia, 73-70 mya.
  • Borogovia - a 7 ft (2 m) long theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Byronosaurus, a 5 feet (1.5 m) long meat-eater from Tanzania.
  • Charonosaurus, a pachycephalosaur from China.
  • Citipati - an oviraptorid from Mongolia
  • Conchoraptor - a small oviraptorid (fast, bipedal, toothless meat-eater) 5 feet (1.5 m) long from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Chiayusaurus - a large sauropod (long-tailed, long-necked plant-eater) from China, 80-70 mya.
  • Chingkankousaurus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from China, 88.5-65 mya.
  • Cionodon - a horse-sized duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid) from Alberta, Canada and Russia, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Deinocheirus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater) with huge arms, from Mongolia, 75-65 mya.
  • Deltatheridium - An early mammal about 6 inches (15 cm) long - it looked like a modern-day weasel. This insect eater was from Mongolia about 70 million years ago.
  • Elmisaurus - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Enigmosaurus - a segnosaur (theropod) from the Mongolia, 97-88 mya.
  • Erlikosaurus - a segnosaur (theropod) 17 ft (5 m) long from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Gallimimus - a beaked Ornithomimid, an omnivore,17 feet (5 m) long from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Garudimimus - a beaked Ornithomimid, an omnivore,12 feet (3.5 m) long from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Gilmoreosaurus - a duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Mongolia, 85 - 80 mya.
  • Goyocephale - a flat-headed pachycephalosaurid (a plant-eater),10 feet (3 m) long from Mongolia, 85-80 mya.
  • Heishansaurus- an ankylosaur (an armored, plant-eater) from China, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Hironosaurus - a large, duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur, a beaked plant-eater) from Japan, 97.5 - 65 mya.
  • Hisanohamasaurus - a diplodocid sauropod (whip-tailed plant-eater) from Japan, 97.5 - 65 mya. Known only from some teeth.
  • Homalocephale - a pachycephalosaur (a thick-skulled plant-eater) 5 ft (1.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Hulsanpes - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 77 mya. Known only from one foot.
  • Ingenia - an ovirartorid theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 80-70 mya.
  • Jaxartosaurus - a large, duckbilled dinosaur (a hadrosaur, a beaked plant-eater) 30 ft (9 m), from Kazakhstan , 91 - 83 mya.
  • Khaan - an oviraptorid from Mongolia.
  • Koreanosaurus - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Korea, late Cretaceous. Known from only one leg bone.
  • Maleevosaurus - a relatively small tyrannosaurid (huge, bipedal meat-eaters), from Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Maleevus - an ankylosaurid (armored plant-eaters), 20 ft (5 ) long, from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Mandschurosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 27 ft (8 m) long, from Manchuria, China, 70 mya.
  • Megacervixosaurus - a diplodocid sauropod (whip-tailed plant-eater) from China, 97.5 - 65 mya. Known only from some teeth and vertebrae.
  • Microceratops- a tiny ceratopsian (a frilled plant-eater) 30 inches (0.76 m) long, from China, 83-65 mya.
  • Microdontosaurus - a sauropod (large, long-necked plant-eater) from China, 98 - 65 mya. Known only from some tiny teeth.
  • Microhadrosaurus - a small duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 8.75 ft (2.6 m) long, from China, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Micropachycephalosaurus - a small pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled plant-eater), from China, 83-73 mya. The dinosaur with the longest name.
  • Nanshiungosaurus - a segnosaur (theropod, meat-eater) 13 ft (4 m) long, from Nanshiung, China, 75 mya.
  • Nemegtosaurus - a large diplodocid sauropod (whip-tailed plant-eater) from Mongolia, 75 - 70 mya.
  • Nipponosaurus - a small, duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) from Sakhalin Island, 88-86 mya.
  • Opisthocoelicaudia - a camarasaurid sauropod (long-tailed, long-necked plant-eater with a box-like head) from Mongolia, 75-70 mya.
  • Oviraptor - a small, omnivorous, toothless, bipedal theropod, from Mongolia, 88-70 mya.
  • Pinacosaurus - an ankylosaurid (armored, tank-like plant-eater) 12 feet (3.5 m) long from Mongolia, China, 85-81 mya.
  • Prenocephale - a pachycephalosaur (a thick-skulled plant-eater) 7 ft (2 m) long, from Mongolia, 77-69 mya.
  • Protoceratops- a primitive ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater), 8 ft (2.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 72 to 65 mya.
  • Quaesitosaurus - a diplodocid sauropod (long-necked, whip-tailed plant-eater) from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, 85-80 mya.
  • Rajasaurus - an Abelisaur 9 m long from India, Maastrichtian.
  • Saichania - an ankylosaurid (armored, tank-like plant-eater with a tail club and spikes) 24 feet (7 m) long from Mongolia, 79-75 mya.
  • Saurolophus - 72 to 68 million years ago, a duckbill from Alberta, Canada and Mongolia, China.
  • Saurornithoides - a small, fast, intelligent, troodontid theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6.5 ft (1.9 m) long, from Mongolia, 85-77 mya.
  • Segnosaurus - a theropod (meat-eater) 20 feet (6.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Shanshanosaurus - a small theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 8.5 ft (2.5 m) long, from China, 83-65 mya.
  • Shantungosaurus - a huge duckbill (beaked plant-eater) 51 ft (15 m) long, from China, 83-73 mya.
  • Shuvuuia - a small theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 3 ft (1.9 m) long, from Mongolia, 85-75 mya.
  • Stegosaurides - a poorly-known ornithischian (plant-eater) from NW China, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Talarurus- an ankylosaurid (an armored, club-tailed, plant-eater) 16 feet (5 m) long, from Mongolia, 97.5-88.5 mya.
  • Tanius - a large duckbill (beaked plant-eater) from China, 88.5-65 mya.
  • Tarchia - an ankylosaurid (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater with a tail club) from Mongolia, 78-69 mya.
  • Therizinosaurus - a large, unusual theropod from Mongolia, 77-69 mya.
  • Tochisaurus - a small Troodontid theropod (fast-moving, intelligent, bipedal meat-eater) from Mongolia, 77-69 mya.
  • Turanoceratops- a small ceratopsian (a horned, frilled, plant-eater) from Russia, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Tylocephale- a small pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled, dome-headed plant-eater), 7 ft (2.5 m) long, from Mongolia, 80-75 mya.
  • Tyrannosaurus rex - 85-65 million years old. From western North America and China.
  • Velociraptor - (meaning “quick predator”) - a theropod (meat-eater) about 6 feet (1.8 m) long, from Mongolia, China, 85-80 million years ago.
  • Wannanosaurus - a small (less than 3ft = 1m long) pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled plant-eater), from China, 83-73 mya.
  • Zalambdalestes - a primitive placental mammal, about 8 inches (20 cm) long. This insectivore looked like a modern-day elephant shrew, had large eyes, a long, upturned snout, and long feet. Found in Mongolia, Asia.

  • None.

  • None.

  • Betasuchus - a poorly-known theropod (meat-eater) from Holland, 70-65 mya.
  • Bradycneme - a theropod (meat-eater) from Romania, 73-65 mya.
  • Craspedodon - a large iguanodontid (a plant-eater with thumb spikes) from Belgium, 87.5-83 mya.
  • Crataeomus - a poorly-known nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from Hungary, 91-88.5 mya.
  • Euronychodon - a small theropod (meat-eater) from Portugal, 75-65 mya.
  • Heptasteornis - a small theropod (meat-eater) from Transylvania, Romania, 73-65 mya.
  • Hypselosaurus - a small titanosaurud sauropod (an armored, long-necked plant-eater) 27 ft (8 m) long, from France and Spain, 73-65 mya. Its huge eggs were also found.
  • Leipsanosaurus - a poorly-known nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from Transylvania, Romania, 91-88.5 mya.
  • Magyarosaurus - a large, poorly-known titanosaurud sauropod (armored, long-necked plant-eater) 27 ft (8 m) long, from Hungary and Romania, 70-65 mya.
  • Orthomerus - a small, poorly-known duck-bill (a beaked plant-eater) from Holland, 72-65 mya.
  • Pyroraptor - a deinonychosaur from France
  • Rhabdodon - a solidly-built ornithischian (a plant-eater) from Austria, France, Hungary, and Romania, 83-65 mya.
  • Rhodanosaurus - a nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from France, 73-65 mya.
  • Struthiosaurus - a nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from Austria and Romania, 83-65 mya.
  • Tarascosaurus - a theropod (meat-eater) from France, 83-80 mya.
  • Taveirosaurus - a small pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater) from Portugal, 73-65 mya. A doubtful genus.
  • Telmatosaurus - a duckbill (beaked plant-eater) 16 ft (5 m) long, from France and Romania, 83-65 mya.
  • Thescelosaurus - a hypsilophodontid (fast-moving plant-eater) 12 ft (3.5 m) long, from western North America, 77-65 mya. Its fossilized, 4-chambered heart heas been found.
  • Vectensia - a nodosaurid ankylosaur (armored, quadrupedal plant-eater) from England, 97-65 mya.

  • Brachypodosaurus - a poorly-known ankylosaur (armored plant-eater) from India, 88-73 mya.
  • Coeluroids - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 88.5 -83 mya.
  • Compsosuchus - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 70 -65 mya.
  • Dravidosaurus - a stegosaurid (plated plant-eater), 10 ft (3 m) long, from India, 88.5-87.5 mya.
  • Dryptosauroids - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 97.5 -65 mya.
  • Indosaurus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from Jabalpur, India, 70 -65 mya.
  • Indosuchus - a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from Jabalpur, India, 70 -65 mya.
  • Jubbulpuria - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 4 ft (1.2 m) long, from India, 73 -65 mya.
  • Laevisuchus - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 7 ft (2.1 m) long, from India, 73 -65 mya.
  • Lametasaurus - a poorly-known ankylosaur (armored plant-eater) from India, 73-65 mya.
  • Ornithomimoides - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater), 7 ft (2.1 m) long, from India, 88.5 -83 mya.
  • Orthogoniosaurus - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater), from India, 95 -65 mya. Only a tooth was found.
  • Titanosaurus - a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked quadrupedal plant-eater), from India, 83-65 mya.

  • Alphadon - a primitive marsupial mammal, about 1 foot (30 cm) long. This omnivore (eating insects, small animals, seeds and fruit) lived in trees, had opposable toes, and a prehensile tail. Found in western North America from Alberta, Canada to New Mexico, USA.
  • Anatotitan - 70-65 million years old, a duck-billed plant-eater. From western North America.
  • Alamosaurus- a 70 feet (21 m) long Titanosaurud (sauropod) from southwestern USA, 73-65 mya.
  • Albertosaurus - A carnivore similar to Tyrannosaurus, but smaller. 76-74 million years old. From western North America.
  • Anchiceratops- a ceratopsian 20 feet (6 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 73-70 mya.
  • Ankylosaurus - The last armor-plated dinosaur (a plant eater), 70-65 million years ago, as big as a tank. From western North America.
  • Archelon - A huge sea turtle covered with horny plates. It was 10-13 feet (3-4 m) long and had paddle-like limbs.
  • Arrhinoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 72-68 mya.
  • Aublysodon - a 15 ft (4.5 m) theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from western North America, 76-65 mya.
  • Avaceratops- one of the smallest ceratopsians (frilled, horned, plant-eaters), 7 feet (2 m) long from Montana, 77-73 mya.
  • Bambiraptor, a small meat-eater from Montana, USA.
  • Brachyceratops- A ceratopsian (a frilled, small-horned, plant-eater) 6 feet (1.8 m) long from Montana, 80-70 mya. 5 fossils were found together.
  • Brachylophosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 23 ft (7 m) long from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 75 mya.
  • Caenagnathus - a 7 ft (2 m) theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from western North America, 75 mya.
  • Centrosaurus - a 6 m long ceratopsian from about 85 million years ago, from Canada.
  • Ceratops - a 25 ft (7.5 m) long ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from 80-73 mya, from Montana, USA.
  • Chasmosaurus - 17 feet (5.8 m) long Ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada and Texas, USA, 80-65 mya.
  • Chirostenotes - a 6.5 ft (2 m) long theropod (lightly-built, bipedal meat-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 76-73 mya.
  • Cionodon - a horse-sized duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada and Russia, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Claorhynchus - a poorly-known ceratopsian (horned, frilled, plant-eater) from 83-73 mya, from Montana, USA.
  • Claosaurus - a 12 ft (3.5 m) duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Kansas, USA, 80-75 mya.
  • Corythosaurus - A late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur (plant-eater) with a hollow, helmet-shaped crest. From Alberta, Canada, 76-72 million years ago.
  • Daspletosaurus - a 30 ft (10 m) tyrannosaurid theropod (large, bipedal meat-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 76-72 mya.
  • Deinodon - the first tyrannosaurid named, a large theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Montana, USA, 75-70 mya.
  • Diceratops - a 30 ft (9 m) long ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater) from Wyoming, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Diclonius - a 27 ft (8 m) duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Montana, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Diplotomodon - a large theropod (a bipedal meat eater). From New Jersey, USA, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Dromaeosaurus - large-brained theropod (fast, advanced, bipedal meat-eater) 6 feet (1.8 m) long, 76-72 million years old. From Alberta, Canada.
  • Dromiceiomimus - ornithomimid theropod (fast, bipedal meat-eater) 12 feet (3.5 m) long, 76-72 million years old. From Alberta, Canada.
  • Dryptosaurus - A theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 20 feet (6 m) long. 70-65 million years ago ). From eastern North America.
  • Dysganus - a poorly-known ceratopsian (horned, frilled, plant-eater) from 83-73 mya, from Montana, USA.
  • Dyslocosaurus - a small, diplodocid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater), 65 ft (20 m) long, from 68-65 mya, from Wyoming, USA.
  • Edmontonia - a plated, nodosaurid ankylosaurid (armored plant-eater) 23 ft (7 m) long. From western North America, 76-68 mya.
  • Edmontosaurus- a large, late-Cretaceous duck-bill (about 73 to 65 million years ago), 40 ft (12m) long. From western North America.
  • Einiosaurus - a ceratopsian (plant-eater) from Montana, USA, 93-89 mya.
  • Eoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, small-horned, plant-eater) 13 feet (4 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 75-72 mya.
  • Eucentrosaurus - a 17 ft (5 m) long ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from 76-72 mya, from Montana, USA and Alberta, Canada.
  • Euoplocephalus  - a 20-foot long armored, plant-eating dinosaur (an ankylosaur) with a tail club. From Alberta, Canada, 76-70 mya.
  • Gorgosaurus - a 26-30 feet (8-9 m) long tyrannosaurid from Alberta, Canada. 76 to 68 mya.
  • Gravitholus - a pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Gryposaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a plant-eater) 25 m (7 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Hadrosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a plant-eater) 25 m (7 m) long from Haddonfield, NJ, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Hesperornis - a diving bird 3 ft (1 m) long that lived near the coast.
  • Hypacrosaurus - a 30 ft (9 m) duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 72-70 mya.
  • Hypsibema - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaurid, a plant-eater) from North Carolina, USA, 83-73 mya. Known from only 5 bones.
  • Ichthyornis - a fish-eating bird that was a powerful flyer. It was 8 inches (20 cm) long and lived near the coast.
  • Kritosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 30 ft (9 m) long, from New Mexico, USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Lambeosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 30 ft (9 m) long, from the western USA and Mexico, 83-65 mya.
  • Leptoceratops- a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 5 feet (1.8 m) long from Wyoming, USA, and Alberta, Canasa, 72-68 mya.
  • Lophorhothon - a flat-headed, duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 15 ft (4.5 m) long, from Alabama, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Maiasaura - A herding, duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 30 ft (9 m) long, from Montana, USA, 80-65 mya.
  • Monoclonius - A large ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater), 17 ft, (5 m) long, from Alberta, CA and Montana, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Montanoceratops - a primitive, ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater), 6 ft (1.8 m). From Montana, 73-70 mya.
  • Nanotyrannus - the smallest tyrannosaurid (bipedal meat-eaters) from Montana, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Nedcolbertia - a small theropod (bipedal plant-eaters) from Utah, USA, 127 to 121 mya.
  • Nothronychus - a therizinosaur from New Mexico, USA, 94-90 mya
  • Ornatotholus - a small pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled plant-eater) 6.5 ft (2.5 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 75 mya.
  • Ornithomimus - an ostrich-like theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from the late Cretaceous, 76-65 million years ago. From western North America.
  • Ornithotarsus - a large duckbill (beaked plant-eater), from New Jesey, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Orodromeus - a small hypsilophodontid (a fast-moving, bipedal plant eater, an ornithopod) from Montana, USA, 77-73 mya. Eggs and embryos were also found.
  • Pachycephalosaurus  - thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater, 15 ft (4.5 m) long, from the western USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Pachyrhhinosaurus - a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 7 feet (23 m) long, from Alaska, USA, and Alberta, Canada, 72-68 mya.
  • Palaeoscincus- a nodosaurid ankylosaur (an armored, plant-eater) 18 feet (5.5 m) long, from Montana, USA, 83-73 mya.
  • Panoplosaurus- a nodosaurid ankylosaur (an armored, plant-eater) 18 feet (5.5 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 76-73 mya.
  • Parasaurolophus  - a duck-billed dinosaur (beaked plant-eater), 30 ft (9 m) long, from western North America, 76-65 mya.
  • Parksosaurus- a hypsilophodontid (a fast-moving plant-eater with canine teeth) 7 feet (2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Pentaceratops - a ceratopsian (a frilled, horned, plant-eater) 28 feet (8 m) long, from New Mexico, USA, 75-65 mya.
  • Prosaurolophus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur) 26 ft (8 m) long from Alberta, Canada, 77-73 mya.
  • Pteranodon - a flying reptile, not a dinosaur, 9 ft (2.8 m) long, weighing 37 pounds (17 kg).
  • Purgatorius - the earliest-known primate (a type of mammal), about 4 inches (10 cm) long. Known from a single fossilized tooth found in Montana, USA. From the late Cretaceous to the early Paleocene.
  • Quetzalcoatlus - a carrion-eating flying reptile, not a dinosaur, 13 ft (4 m) long, weighing 190 pounds (86 kg).
  • Ricardoestesia - a 2 m long meat-eating dinosaur known from only its teeth.
  • Saurolophus - a duckbill (beaked plant-eater) 32 ft (8.7 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Mongolia, China, 72 to 68 mya.
  • Saurornithoides - a small, fast theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6 ft (1.8 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 76-73 mya.
  • Styracosaurus - A ceratopsian from the late Cretaceous, 77-73 million years ago. From western North America.
  • Stegoceras - a pachycephalosaurid (thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater) 7 ft (2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 76-65 mya.
  • Struthiomimus - an ornithomimid theropod (ostrich-like, bipedal meat-eater) 13 ft (4 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 76-70 mya.
  • Stygimoloch - a horned pachycephalosaurid (a thick-skulled, bipedal plant-eater) from Montana, USA, 68-65 mya.
  • Styracosaurus - a ceratopsian (horned, frilled plant-eater) 18 ft (5.25 m) long, from Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA, 77-73 mya.
  • Torosaurus - a ceratopsian (a horned, frilled plant-eater) 21 ft (6.2 m) long, from Alberta, Canada, 70-65 mya.
  • Trachodon - an ornithischian (a poorly-known plant-eater) 21 ft (6.2 m) long, from Montana, USA, 77-73 mya. Trachodon is probably the same as Edmontosaurus.
  • Triceratops  - “three-horned face” - 68-65 million years old, up to 30 feet long, a plant-eater. From western North America.
  • Troodon - a large-brained theropod (bipedal meat-eater), 76-70 million years old. From western North America.
  • Tyrannosaurus rex - Huge meat-eater from western North America and China, 85-65 mya.
  • Ugrosaurus - a large ceratopsian (horned, frilled, plant-eater) from Montana, 68 - 65 mya.
  • Zapsalis - a meat-eater from Montana

  • Abelisaurus - a theropod (a bipedal meat-eater) 26 feet (7.9 m) long. Known from an incomplete skull from Patagonia, Argentina, 70 mya.
  • Aeolosaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor) 50 feet (15 m) long from Argentina, 75-70 mya.
  • Alvarezsaurus- a long-tailed theropod (meat-eater) 6 feet (2 m) long from Argentina, 80 mya.
  • Antarctosaurus- one of the largest dinosaurs, found in 1916- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), 100 feet (30 m) long, from Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 83-65 mya.
  • Araucanoraptor- a coelurosaur theropod (meat-eater) 8 feet (2.5 m) long from Argentina, roughly 90 mya.
  • Argentinosaurus, a huge sauropod 130+ feet (40 m) long long from Argentina, this may be the largest dinosaur.
  • Argyrosaurus - a 70 ft (21 m) long sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina and Uruguay, 73-65 mya.
  • Campylodoniscus- a large sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 97-85 mya.
  • Clasmosaurus - a large sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 95 mya.
  • Epachthosaurus - a sauropod (a long-necked plant-eater) from Argentina, 87.5 mya. Known from only one vertebra.
  • Gasparinisaura - a 31 inches (80 cm) long iguanodontid from Patagonia, 90 to 83 mya.
  • Genyodectes - a poorly-known theropod (bipedal meat-eater) from Argentina.
  • Laplatasaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater) 60 feet (18 m) long from Argentina, 83-65 mya.
  • Microsaurops- a relatively small titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), from Argentina, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Neuquensaurus- a large, titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor), from Argentina, 97.5-65 mya.
  • Noasaurus - a small theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 6 ft (1.8 m) long, from Argentina, 75 -65 mya. It had a huge claw on each foot.
  • Notoceratops - a ceratopsian (horned plant-eater) from Patagonia, Argentina, 83-73 mya.
  • Quilmesaurus - a theropod from Patagonia
  • Saltasaurus- a titanosaurid sauropod (long-necked plant-eater with armor) 40 feet (12 m) long from Argentina, 83-79 mya.
  • Secernosaurus - a duck-billed dinosaur (a hadrosaur, a beaked plant-eater) 10 ft (3 m) long from Argentina, 73-65 mya.
  • Unquillosaurus - a theropod (bipedal meat-eater) 36 ft (11 m) long, from Argentina, 83 -73 mya.
  • Velocisaurus - a small, fast theropod (meat-eater) from Argentina, 73-65 mya.
  • Xenotarsosaurus - a mid-sized theropod (meat-eater) from Argentina, 83-73 mya. Known from leg bones only.

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FOSSILS FOUND: Partial skeletons

BONES FOUND INCLUDE: Vertebrae, not limited to.

WHERE IT WAS FOUND: Patagonia

TERRAIN TYPE: Woodlands

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INTERESTING FACTS:  Paleontologists are still digging up new genera of enormous sauropods. One of the latest examples is the oddly named Futalognkosaurus, 70 percent of whose skeleton has been reassembled from three fossilized specimens found in Patagonia.

OTHER INFORMATION: Technically, Futalognkosaurus is classified as a titanosaur (a type of lightly armored sauropod common in the late Cretaceous), and some experts have hailed it as “the most complete giant dinosaur known so far.” (Other sauropods, such as Argentinosaurus, appear to have been even bigger, but are represented by less complete fossil remains.)

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KINGDOM: Animalia

PHYLUM: Chordata

CLASS: Reptilia

SUPERORDER: Dinosauria

ORDER: Saurischia

SUBORDER: Sauropodomorpha

INFRAORDER: N/A

SUPERFAMILY: N/A

FAMILY: N/A

SUBFAMILY: N/A

TRIBE: N/A

NODE: N/A

BRANCH: N/A

GENUS: Futalognkosaurus

-Calvo, Porfiri, González-Riga, & Kellner, 2007

SPECIES: F. dukei

-Calvo, 2007

TYPE SPECIES: F. dukei

-Calvo, 2007

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DATABASE NUMBER: N/A

REASON FOR FEATURING: Request

POST NUMBER: 5/50